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Sosoyohim or Mixed kachinas are a diverse group of cloud spirits primarily used to dance for much needed rain, but to perform other tasks as well and are called upon as the need arises. When a variety of kachinas dance together it is referred to as Mixed or Line Dances. The Sosoyohim spirits may be cloud, insect and other indian kachinas but all are asked to dance for rain. The Mixed Dances are held during the spring and summer months when the crops are freshly planted and rain is most needed to help plants grow.
The supernaturals do not come if the people are angry or unhappy so every effort is made to throw happy, colorful ceremonies so the visiting kachinas will pause and bring rain to the villages. It is at this time of the season where visitors are most welcome for fear of offending the kachinas.
Kachina types may cross match into one or more group since many kachinas are multi-faceted with numerous responsbilities and roles.
Print and trace the designs onto multi-color fun craft foam sheets to create pliable and colorful soft face masks. Use left over trimmings of foam pieces to cut and paste intricate designs and shapes onto the mask. For best results print on heavy duty vellum paper or card stock. All paper mask designs are printable on regular or heavy duty 8 1/2" x 11" paper. Print landscape mode for larger masks, portrait setting for smaller masks.
Each kachina mask pattern has a brief overview of the Hopi religious and ceremonial meaning and purpose of the design plus links to one or more existing native American kachina doll photo or drawing. Many kachinas can belong to more than one group or category, for example, a chief kachina can also be a clown or a runner, and might be listed in those categories as well. Children can decorate the masks using their own imagination or refer to the the photos of actual native American designs and make the masks come to life with stories and song.
The Hahai-I Wuhti or Grand Mother Kachina is known as the mother of all kachinas, mother of monsters and other kachinas, plus the mother of dogs. Other names for the Hahai-I Wuhti are Pour Water Woman and Mother Earth. Her real children are the Nata'aska (uncle of the family of ogre Katsinas) and monsters.
Hahai-I Wuhti is believed to be Chief Eototo's wife and portrayed as a supporting influence to Eototo's kachina impersonation, however, she is also believed to be the dominating and demanding mother to the Nataska Kachinas.
She makes her appearances in important ceremonies such as the Hopi Shalako, the Water Serpent, the Soyoko and the Powamu. Some ceremonies have her threatening villagers if she is not fed meat, and in other ceremonies she gives food (somiviki) to children and blesses them with water. Ogre kachinas appear at the Powamuya (bean dance) accompanying Soyok Wuhti to threaten children against misbehaving and enforce good behavior among the children
Whoever said motherhood would be easy?
Danik'china Cloud Guard kachinas are the uncles of Shalako Taka and Shalako Mana kachinas appear in groups of four. Together they dance as pairs, two with Shalako Taka and two with Shalako Mana kachinas.
As they dance they strike the ground with long willow branches to raise dust which mimic the effects of the winds that come just before a thunderstorm.
The Tukwinong or Cumulus Cloud Kachina is also a Chief or Mongwi Kachinum. His primary responsibility is to pray for heavy rain, enough to nourish the field crops for harvest to sustain adequate the food supplies for the Hopi people.
There are several different designs for this kachina depending upon Mesa rituals and traditions. Feathers representing rainfall cover the face of the mask while big cloud symbols rest on top of the mask.
The Sio Shalako Zuñi Shalako belongs to the Sosoyohim Kachinum or Mixed Kachinad group. He is also a Borrowed Kachina because he was adapted from a Zuñi kachina around 1850.
Accompanied by his female counterpart Mana, the Sio Shalako usually appears at the First Mesa during the Pamuya ceremonies in January but can appear in other events as well.
Poupée Kachina or Holi Kachina is from Old Oraibi.
He is called Holi for the songs and shouts he makes sound like "holi-holi". The black line painted across the face of this mask represents lightning.
Kachina Lenya or Lenang and his female counterpart, Lenang mana, appear in mixed kachina dances at winter solstice and at the beginning of the kachina season.
Lenang Mana, or flute maiden, has a mouth that resembles a flower. These kachinas play flutes to bring water to the land so crops will grow in the spring. Kokopelli, the hump-back flute player and a popular and well-recognized prankster kachina and fertility god, will borrow a flute from Lenang Kachina to create fertility for crops and villagers.
The flowers on the elaborate headdress represent the beauty of the earth and the four cardinal directions, yellow for north, blue for west, red for south, and white for east.
The Monongya or "Turquoise" Lizard Kachina is a fighting or warrior Katsina which apparently represents a specific lizard named the Crotaphytus. The Crotaphytus is a breed of lizard that can grow to be about a foot long, has colorful stripes and can run very fast on their hind legs. The Monongya "Turquoise" lizard kachina is usually depicted with the color of turquoise and sometimes holds a lizard in its teeth.
The Monongya kachina responsibility is to keep the clown kachinas in line by punishing or chastizing those who go too far in their outrageous antics. The Lizard Kachina appears in the Mixed Dance and in the Powamu Ceremony.
Masau'u Kachin Mana or Death Girl Kachina is a rasping kachina who accompanies the Masau'u Kachina in song by using rasp and gourd musical instruments. She is believed to be a bringer of rain.
Qalavi or Purifying appears in the Powamu Ceremony, the ritual blessing of the Hopi pueblos, at Second Mesa as part of the initiation of children into adulthood. This kachina's job is to hold the children so they can be swatted with a yucca whip by Hu kachinas.
Wupá-ala, or Long Horned, kachina is one of the Rain Gods of the North. This case mask is green-faced with an upturned horn on the right side and a red ear on the left side. The eyes consist of Greek cross shapes connected together in the center. The mouth is triangular.
There are only a handful of kachinas with one horn on the side. Wupa'ala Longhorn kachinas usually appear accompanying the Shalako kachinas in the Mixed Kachina Dance processions.
The Wupa'ala appears only during Shalako to observe the Moon, control the calendar and tell the people when planting should begin, when or if ceremonies are to be held or postponed.